Lawson (2009) addresses four major topics in modern Syrian affairs. They are the socioeconomic and legal power structures, religion/ ethnicity, the Syrian opposition, and Syria’s foreign affairs. The book is organized in short edited essays referring to those issues. Even though they do not exhaust the themes, they provide a coherent overview of modern Syrian life. Some of the essays analyze the shifting connections between the Baath party and the military forces, flourishing the private sector, and the ameliorating Turkish-Syrian relations, which had suffered a dramatic period. “The regime in Damascus experienced its darkest hours in the aftermath of Rafiq Hariri’s assassination. Some of its members were convinced that it was indeed passing through its dying days (Lawson 168).” Lawson (2009) comments on the events in Syria with an in-depth understanding of the complication situation there and taking into consideration all conflicts in the Middle Eastern region. In the first section based on the socioeconomic power Lawson (2009) elaborates how the Syrian regime was formed on the coalition between the Alawi-led military forces and circles that support the traditional economic status quo, for example, the Damascene Sunni merchants. Salwa Ismail (cited in Lawson) claims that this partnership between fractions of the traditional domestic capital and the government serves as the “structural foundation of authoritarianism in Syria”. &nbsp.“Political parties have always been the weakest link in the opposition. Except for the Kurdish parties, whose members are resoundingly nationalist, none has managed to plant roots in society. The most popular non-sectarian party’s membership is less than 1,000, leaving active members vastly outnumbered by security agents (Lawson 124).