Akbarzadeh .F & Mansouri .S (2010, 3) argue that political violence that is common in many Islamic states began during the nation-building process. The demarcation of Islam countries by the colonial rulers led to legitimacy challenges among the elites who clung into power under the pretext of modernization. The elites in Islamic countries did not consider Islam in the development of the young nations. According to Akbarzadeh, F & Mansouri, S (2010, 3), the national elites’ decision to disregard Islam in the modernization process might have been due to colonial rulers’ denigration of Islam as a backward religion. The elites adopted state policies that suppressed Islam and regarded it as anti-modern in Islamic countries such as Turkey and Iran. In a worse situation, the elites outrightly rejected Islam and considered it inappropriate in Iraq and Jordan.