On the other hand, where the intention of the research is theory testing, research is applied as a vehicle for data collection, since it dictates the data that is to be collected (Harlow, 2009). A theory synthesis data, which has been collected through research, is used to give a prediction of the most likely occurrence that will be registered in the future. On the other hand, research, through its findings and analysis, takes a particular theory that is related to the specific area of study, and then uses the theory as the basis for analysis, by testing the theory against real data, to end up with either data that validates the theory, or challenges it (Rynes & Gephart, 2004). Through research findings, a theory that exists is either validated or challenged, paving a way through which a theory can be improved. Therefore, one way in which research can contribute to theory is through validating or recommending for further development of the theory. Thus, research tests challenge and develop the theory.