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At the beginning of the twentieth century, criminology and criminal justice was a prerogative of the government only. Prior to the 1970s, criminal justice under the name “modern criminology” was characterized by the “penal welfarism” framework for dealing with criminals [Hall, 1978]. Under this approach, criminals were treated with humanity and decency and rehabilitating them was seen as the way to combat crime. In short, the penal welfare approach did not believe in punishing criminals, rather it used the foresaid correctional concept. Delinquents and criminals were regarded as unfortunate individuals who could benefit from societal and government support, and not as evil doers [Garland, 1985]. There were no general guidelines for dealing with criminals. each criminal act was handled individually. Criminologists were relied upon by the government to give expert advice on how to go about rehabilitating criminals, especially diagnostic treatment and penal sanctions [Taylor, Walton & Young, 1973]. Consequently, the penal welfare approach did not believe in punishing criminals.