Bipolar disorder presents itself most commonly in late adolescence and early adulthood and is “recurrent, chronic, and the sixth leading cause of disability for people age 15 to 44” (Corcoran & Walsh, p.381). In order for a diagnosis of bipolar to be made, periods of mania and depression must be present. These episodes will vary in their magnitude which is why DSM-IV-TR has included several types and subtypes of this disorder. These will be discussed in an overview later in this paper. Common signs of mania include feelings of euphoria and inflated self-esteem which may lead the person to believe he or she is invincible. With this mindset, the person often engages in harmful behaviors such as excessive spending, risky sexual encounters, and reckless driving. A decreased need for sleep and racing thoughts give this person ample opportunity to do maximum damage in a minimum amount of time. Depressive episodes may include fatigue and apathy, low self-esteem, decreased interest in activities, or people that the patient would otherwise be enthusiastic about. Feelings of sadness, helplessness, and even guilt are likely to result in suicidal feelings or attempts (webmd.com).