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On the 24th of March, 1989, the Exxon Valdez, a supertanker measuring 987 feet, shipwrecked on Bligh Reef, discharging more than 260,000 barrels or 11 million gallons of crude oil into the previously unspoiled surroundings and ecosystem of Prince William Sound (York 399). The spilled oil flowed and scattered to the southwest along the Alaska Peninsula, Kodiak Archipelago, and the Kenai Peninsula, which was 750 km from the point of origin. The oil spill in due course spread all over 11,000 square miles of ocean and smeared 1,300 miles of shoreline (Bryan 28). The National Transportation Safety Board made the investigation and identified five possible causes of the Exxon Valdez oil spill. First, Gregory Cousins was not able to correctly guide the ship, perhaps because of exhaustion and too much amount of work (Hellstrom 367).